Helicopter Instrument Flight Manual

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Helicopter Instrument Flight Manual.

Instrument Flight for Army Aviators is a complete study of the art of helicopter instrument flight for both students and as a reference for current instrument rated Rotorcraft pilots.

 

Contents ...



Chapter 1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS

Section I Pitot-Static Systems...................................................................... 1-1
Altimeter.............................................................................................................. 1-2
Airspeed Indicator............................................................................................... 1-7
Vertical Speed Indicator ..................................................................................... 1-8
Section II Compass Systems ..................................................................... 1-10
Magnetic Compass........................................................................................... 1-10
Radio Magnetic Indicator.................................................................................. 1-15
Section III Gyroscopic Systems................................................................. 1-16
Gyroscope ........................................................................................................ 1-16
Attitude Indicator............................................................................................... 1-17
Turn-and-Slip Indicator/Turn Coordinator ........................................................ 1-18
Section IV Flight Management System ..................................................... 1-20
Horizontal Situation Indicator ........................................................................... 1-20
Vertical Situation Indicator................................................................................ 1-21

Chapter 2 ROTARY WING INSTRUMENT FLIGHT MANEUVERS

Section I Maneuver Performance................................................................. 2-1
Instruments......................................................................................................... 2-1
Performance ....................................................................................................... 2-2
Procedural Steps................................................................................................ 2-3
Primary and Supporting Methods....................................................................... 2-3
Section II Flight Management System......................................................... 2-5
Cross-Check....................................................................................................... 2-5
Instrument Interpretation .................................................................................... 2-7
Aircraft Control.................................................................................................... 2-8
Section III Instrument Takeoff ...................................................................... 2-8
Preparing ............................................................................................................ 2-9
Performing From Hover/Ground......................................................................... 2-9
Takeoff ................................................................................................................2-9
Common Errors.................................................................................................2-10
Section IV Straight and Level Flight ..........................................................2-10
Pitch Attitude Control ........................................................................................2-10
Bank Control .....................................................................................................2-12
Power Control ...................................................................................................2-13
Common Errors.................................................................................................2-15
Section V Straight Climbs and Descents ..................................................2-15
Climbs ...............................................................................................................2-15
Descents ...........................................................................................................2-17
Common Errors.................................................................................................2-18
Section VI Turns...........................................................................................2-18
Predetermined Heading ....................................................................................2-19
Timed ................................................................................................................2-19
Changing Airspeed ...........................................................................................2-20
Compass ...........................................................................................................2-20
Thirty Degree Bank...........................................................................................2-22
Climbing and Descending.................................................................................2-22
Common Errors.................................................................................................2-23
Section VII Other Maneuvers ......................................................................2-23
Unusual Attitudes..............................................................................................2-23
Autorotations.....................................................................................................2-23

Chapter 3 FIXED WING INSTUMENT FLIGHT MANEUVERS

Section I  Instrument Takeoff.........................................................................3-1
Takeoff ................................................................................................................3-1
Common Takeoff Errors and Resolutions...........................................................3-2
Section II Straight and Level Flight .............................................................3-2
Pitch Control........................................................................................................3-2
Bank Control .......................................................................................................3-6
Power Control .....................................................................................................3-8
Trim Technique .................................................................................................3-12
Section III Straight Climbs and Descents..................................................3-12
Climbs ...............................................................................................................3-12
Descents ...........................................................................................................3-16
Common Climb and Descent Errors and Resolutions ......................................3-18
Section IV Turns...........................................................................................3-19
Standard Rate Turns ........................................................................................3-19
Steep Turns.......................................................................................................3-20
Climbing and Descending Turns.......................................................................3-21
Change of Airspeed During Turns ....................................................................3-21
Common Turn Errors ........................................................................................3-22
Section V Other Maneuvers........................................................................ 3-24
Approach to Stall .............................................................................................. 3-24
Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries ................................................................... 3-24

Chapter 4 AIR NAVIGATION CHARTS

Section I Air Navigation ................................................................................ 4-1
Measuring a Position Using Latitude and Longitude.......................................... 4-1
Measuring Direction ........................................................................................... 4-3
Navigation Charts ............................................................................................... 4-4
Departure Procedure Chart .............................................................................. 4-11
Standard Terminal Arrival Route Charts .......................................................... 4-11
Instrument Approach Procedure Chart ............................................................ 4-11
Inoperative Components .................................................................................. 4-25
Section II Plotting and Measuring.............................................................. 4-25
Plotter ............................................................................................................... 4-25
Measurements and Course Lines .................................................................... 4-27

Chapter 5 AIR NAVIGATION HANDHELD COMPUTER

Section I Calculator Side .............................................................................. 5-1
Values................................................................................................................. 5-1
Indexes ............................................................................................................... 5-1
Time and Distance.............................................................................................. 5-2
Short Time and Distance (Use of the 36 Index) ................................................. 5-3
Computing Time for Outbound Leg During Holding........................................... 5-4
Fuel Consumption .............................................................................................. 5-6
True Airspeed..................................................................................................... 5-8
Distance Conversion .......................................................................................... 5-9
True Altitude Calculation .................................................................................. 5-10
Multiplication and Division Calculations ........................................................... 5-11
Converting Distance to Time............................................................................ 5-12
Section II Wind Side .................................................................................... 5-13
Disk and Correction Scales .............................................................................. 5-13
Reversible Grid................................................................................................. 5-13
Determining Heading and Ground Speed........................................................ 5-14
Determining Unknown Wind............................................................................. 5-15
Determining Altitude for Most Favorable Wind................................................. 5-16
Determining Radius of Action........................................................................... 5-17

Chapter 6 INSTRUMENT WEATHER

Effects of Wind ................................................................................................... 6-1
Turbulence.......................................................................................................... 6-3
Structural Icing.................................................................................................... 6-4
Fog...................................................................................................................... 6-5
Volcanic Ash....................................................................................................... 6-5
Thunderstorms ................................................................................................... 6-6
Wind Shear......................................................................................................... 6-6

Chapter 7 NAVIGATION AIDS

Section I Basic Radio Principles ..................................................................7-1
Radio Wave Propagation ....................................................................................7-1
Types of Waves ..................................................................................................7-1
Radio Wave Reception Disturbances.................................................................7-2
Precautions .........................................................................................................7-3
Section II Navigation Systems......................................................................7-3
NonDirectional Radio Beacon.............................................................................7-3
Very High Frequency OmniDirectional Range....................................................7-5
Tactical Air Navigation ........................................................................................7-8
Very High Frequency OmniDirectional Range/Tactical Air Navigation.............7-10
Distance Measuring Equipment........................................................................7-10
Global Positioning System................................................................................7-11
Inertial Navigation System ................................................................................7-14
Section III Navigation Procedures..............................................................7-14
Application.........................................................................................................7-14
Homing to a Station ..........................................................................................7-16
Tracking to a Station .........................................................................................7-17
Course Intercept ...............................................................................................7-21
Arc Interceptions ...............................................................................................7-27
Area Navigation.................................................................................................7-30
Global Positioning System Navigation..............................................................7-32

Chapter 8 AIRSPACE

Section I National Airspace System.............................................................8-1
Airspace Classification........................................................................................8-1
Special Use Airspace..........................................................................................8-3
Other Airspace ....................................................................................................8-4
Federal Airway ....................................................................................................8-5
Section II International Civil Aviation Organization ...................................8-7
Safety ..................................................................................................................8-7
Applicability .........................................................................................................8-7
Current Information and Procedures ..................................................................8-7
Terminal Instrument Approach Procedures........................................................8-7
Compliance .........................................................................................................8-8
Definitions ...........................................................................................................8-8
Departure Procedures.........................................................................................8-9
Approach Procedures .......................................................................................8-10
Holding ..............................................................................................................8-17
Altimeter Setting Procedures ............................................................................8-19
Transponder Operating Procedures .................................................................8-20

Chapter 9 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Communications .................................................................................................9-1
Control Sequence ...............................................................................................9-6
Letters of Agreement ..........................................................................................9-8

Chapter 10 INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES INFORMATION AND PROCEDURES

Section I Sources of Flight Planning Information.................................... 10-1
Department of Defense Flight Information Publications................................... 10-1
Civil Publications .............................................................................................. 10-3
Section II Instrument Flight Rules Flight Plan.......................................... 10-4
Filing ................................................................................................................. 10-4
Canceling.......................................................................................................... 10-8
Section III Clearances ................................................................................. 10-8
Separations ...................................................................................................... 10-9
Visual Flight Rules on Top ............................................................................. 10-10
Visual Flight Rules Over the Top ................................................................... 10-11
Section IV Notice to Airmen System ....................................................... 10-11
Notice to Airmen ............................................................................................. 10-11
Notices to Airmen Types ................................................................................ 10-11
Internet Distribution System ........................................................................... 10-13
Section V Navigation Options in the National Airspace System.......... 10-15
On Airways ..................................................................................................... 10-15
Off Airways (Direct) ........................................................................................ 10-16
Section VI Departures ............................................................................... 10-17
Departure Procedures .................................................................................... 10-17
Diverse Departure .......................................................................................... 10-17
Radar Controlled Departure ........................................................................... 10-19
Departure From Airports Without an Operating Control Tower...................... 10-19
Section VII En Route ................................................................................. 10-19
Procedures ..................................................................................................... 10-19
Holding Procedures........................................................................................ 10-22
Section VIII Approaches ........................................................................... 10-29
Published Procedure Compliance.................................................................. 10-29
Approaches to Airports................................................................................... 10-29
Low Altitude Approaches ............................................................................... 10-32
High Altitude Approach .................................................................................. 10-38
Final Approach ............................................................................................... 10-43
Other Approaches .......................................................................................... 10-52
Missed Approaches........................................................................................ 10-55
Section IX Landing .................................................................................... 10-56
Land and Hold Short Operations.................................................................... 10-56
Landing Fees.................................................................................................. 10-56

Chapter 11 EMERGENCY OPERATIONS

Section I Emergencies ................................................................................ 11-1
Unforecasted Adverse Weather ....................................................................... 11-1
Aircraft System Malfunctions............................................................................ 11-3
Communication/Navigation .............................................................................. 11-4
Loss of Situational Awareness ......................................................................... 11-4
Inadvertent Instrument Meteorological Condition............................................. 11-4
Section II Air Traffic Control Requirements and Responsibilities..........11-6
Provide information ...........................................................................................11-6
Request Assistance ..........................................................................................11-7
Responsibility....................................................................................................11-8
Appendix A INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES OPERATIONS ............................................... A-1
Appendix B INSTRUMENT FLIGHT IN A THEATER OF OPERATIONS............................ B-1
Appendix C WEATHER REPORTS AND RISK MANAGEMENT ........................................ C-1
Appendix D INTERNET ADDRESSES AND ACCESS......................................................... D-1
Appendix E AIRCREW COORDINATION AND INSTRUMENT FLIGHT............................. E-1
GLOSSARY.......................................................................................... Glossary-1
INDEX......................................................................................................... Index-1

 

Soft Cover - Spiral Bound - Illustrated - 360 Pages.